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Citizenship by Investment in Poland

Citizenship by Investment in Poland

The Polish legislation does not prescribe a straightforward system that can lead to citizenship by investment in this country. The only way to obtain citizenship here is by applying for a residence permit (at first, a short-term residence permit and then for a permanent residence permit) and live in this country for the required period of time that can allow a person to be qualified for the procedures applicable to Polish citizenship.

Investors moving to Poland will thus have to apply for a temporary residence permit that will allow them the right to live here and start the business activity they are interested in carrying out. Upon the expiration of the document, they can apply for a permanent residence permit, through which they will be entitled to Polish citizenship in a given period of time; our team of immigration lawyers in Poland can assist with information regarding the application procedure.

What are the conditions for citizenship by investment in Poland in 2024?

Foreign entrepreneurs seeking Polish citizenship can do so under specific conditions as Poland does not provide direct citizenship through investment. So by taking other routes, at first, they need to invest at least EUR 100,000 in a business that will then be evaluated as being profitable. The annual turnover the company is expected to generate is of at least EUR 15,000, these financial aspects being the basic legal requirements for applying for Polish citizenship by investment in 2024. Also, note that Poland has two types of business visas. The type-C visa, commonly referred to as the Uniform Schengen Visa, grants authorization for travel within the Schengen region. Holders of this visa are permitted to stay in any of the Schengen Area member countries for a maximum of 90 days within 180 days. If you are interested, our lawyers can offer you comprehensive guidance in this matter.

On the other hand, a D-type national visa permits its holders to enter Poland and stay there for a period exceeding 90 days during the validity period of the visa. This stay may be continuous or intermittent, but it must not exceed one year in total duration. Our attorneys can guide you more about this visa. So, you are welcome to ask our lawyers any questions regarding the types of business visas in Poland. Other aspects foreign businessmen should take into consideration are the following:

• the legislation for Poland immigration regarding citizenship stipulates that the foreign investor must have lived in this country for at least 3 years on the basis of a permanent residence permit prior to applying for citizenship by investment;
• the person must be the holder of a residence card and must have a profitable business in Poland (and pay taxes accordingly);
• the investor must have lived in Poland on a continuous basis, with the mention that breaks are allowed, as long as the overall period of not living here is less than 10 months;
• the applicant for citizenship by investment in Poland must have a stable source of income, which can refer to income from dividends, income from work contracts and other types of sources;
• proof of having a stable place to live, such as the long-term rental contract or the proof of property ownership in Poland;
• the command of the Polish language is also necessary – the minimum requirement is B1 level.

 Quick Facts  
  Nationalities accepted (EU/Non-EU)

EU and non-EU nationals

Business investment option (YES/NO)

YES, minimum investment EUR 100,000

Real estate investment option (YES/NO)

Other investment options
(if available) 
Living requirement in Poland  (YES/NO) YES, there is no direct route to citizenship
Residence or direct citizenship option

Residence, followed by citizenship

Direct immigration with family members (YES/NO)


Family members allowed to join the program Spouse and children under the age of 21
Residence visa/citizenship processing time (approx.)   Approx. one month from submitting the documents
Additional financial requirements for family members (YES/NO)  NO
Timeframe for obtaining citizenship/residency by investment  After 3 years of permanent residency
Dual citizenship permitted (YES/NO) YES, dual citizenship is permitted
Reasons to choose Poland  Simple application procedure, access to the EU business and labor markets, good living conditions, EU and Schengen membership
Personal income tax rate 17% for income PLN 120,000/year, 32% + PLN 15,300  for amounts exceedng PLN 120,000/year
Visa free travel to other countries (approx. number of countries)  Approx. 160 countries 

Foreign businessmen starting a business in Poland can register any of the legal entities that are prescribed under the Polish legislation, such as corporate entities (limited liability company or joint stock company) or partnerships. Information and assistance on the business environment in this country can be obtained from the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development, an agency that can also help foreign businessmen.

We can also advise on the procedure of obtaining a residence permit in Poland.

Types of entities that can be created in order to obtain a Polish investor visa

Foreign investors who want to relocate to Poland through investment can do that by registering one of the types of legal entities available under the local legislation. Among these, the following are eligible:

  • limited partnerships;
  • limited liability companies;
  • public companies.

What should be noted is that in some cases, the minimum amount of money required to invest in the business is higher than the one requested under the investor visa in Poland.

Our immigration lawyers in Poland can provide detailed information on how to set up a business in this country with the purpose of obtaining residency followed by citizenship by investment at the level of 2024.

Poland allows dual citizenship. You must abide by the same laws, rights, and obligations as any other Polish citizen if you desire to hold dual citizenship. You will need to decide which citizenship you want to preserve since certain nations do not permit dual citizenship. If you want to give up your current nationality for Polish citizenship, this is also possible.

Other ways to immigrate to Poland through investment in 2024

The Start-Up visa is another way of relocating to Poland through investment. This is a recent program that has been enabled in other countries around the world, but mainly in Europe.

In 2024, individuals seeking citizenship through Poland’s Start-up visa program must meet specific business establishment criteria, as there is no direct citizenship acquisition option through investment available. Your initial focus should be on obtaining a residence permit through this program.

The applicant must file an application for the creation of new enterprise in which he or she is a member of the board of directors. The business idea must be based on a tangible business plan and an innovative idea. The minimum amount of money required for the Start-up Visa program is 1,200 euros. Also, the new company must contribute to the Polish economy through the creation of new jobs.

Obtaining Polish citizenship by investment through a start-up visa implies for the foreign applicant to move here based on a residence permit. Additionally, he or she will also be granted a work permit in order to act as a director in the company.

When it comes to the documents that need to be prepared for obtaining the residence permit, these will be the same as for any other immigrant with an exception: the person must provide a business plan and must prove the idea is innovative.

Obtaining residence in Poland after moving here

The first thing to consider when seeking to obtain citizenship by investment in Poland is that one will first be granted a permanent residence permit, provided that the following requirements are met:

  • the applicant must be a Polish temporary resident permit;
  • the applicant has lived in Poland for 5 years;
  • the applicant must prove the success of the startup business through a bank statement indicating the balance of the company’s account.
  • the person has a good level of the Polish language.

It should be noted that any of the types of legal entities presented above can be used for the creation of a startup through which citizenship by investment can be obtained in Poland in 2024.

If you have any questions on how to apply for permanent residency in this country, our Polish immigration lawyers can provide the necessary details.

Investments Legislation in Poland

When doing business in Poland, foreign investors are treated according to the Economic Freedom Act. According to this document, the investment legislation in Poland does not discriminate against foreign investors: they are entitled to the same rights and obligations as Polish entrepreneurs if they are EU or EEA residents. The legislation regarding foreign investments in Poland is slightly different for entrepreneurs outside of Europe.

Our immigration lawyers in Poland can provide detailed information about the provisions of the Economic Freedom Act and the European Free Trade Agreement zones.

Foreign investors in Poland

Foreign individuals are either natural persons residing abroad, without Polish citizenship or legal persons with a registered office outside of Poland, having legal capacity. The Polish law related to foreign investments offers freedom to business activities. This ensures that both foreign and resident entrepreneurs enjoy the same rights for performing their chosen business activities.

The rules and regulations applicable to Polish citizens also apply to investors from other countries, like:

  • the EU Member States;
  • Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein;
  • countries outside the European Economic Area.

There are several forms of businesses in Poland, and each type of legal entity offers various advantages for entrepreneurs. The types of business structures in Poland include limited liability companies, joint-stock companies, general partnerships, limited liability partnerships, branches or subsidiaries.

Our Polish lawyers specialized in immigration can help you start a business in Poland and offer you information about special opportunities for investors in Poland, such as the Polish Special Economic Zones.

Regulations for investors in Poland

Foreign investors in Poland should know the specific rules and regulations applicable for employing and dismissing employees in Poland. The Polish Labor Code offers the guidelines needed to manage the relationship between the employer and the employee. Special provisions apply when employing foreigners in Poland.

Real estate purchase is possible for foreigners in Poland if they have a special permit for acquiring ownership. Other special permits and licenses in Poland are also required when operating in certain business sectors.

How can our immigration lawyers in Poland help you?

Relocation to Poland is possible through various means, among which citizenship by investment is one that requires a lot of attention and patience.

With the help of our immigration lawyers in Poland, applying for citizenship by investment can be simplified thanks to the fact that the applicant will know first-hand how to approach the entire relocation procedure.

From detailed guidance on the requirements of starting a business that qualifies for obtaining residency to the documents that one needs to prepare, our lawyers will verify and help immigrants based on specific conditions applicable to their country of origin, where these apply. Among these, there can be the case of medical exams or additional requirements.

We can also provide information on the steps to follow from the application procedure and up until the residence visa is issued and the time they can relocate to Poland.

The Poland temporary residency permit has a three-year maximum validity period. If you continue to satisfy the initial requirements, you may extend or renew the permit. You can submit an application for permanent residency in Poland after 5 years. Let our immigration lawyers handle the procedure on your behalf in order to complete it properly.

Also, any questions a foreign citizen has will be answered in detail by one of our Polish immigration lawyers.

What are Poland’s most important investment partners?

Poland provides a set of attractive advantages for foreign investors from its strategic geographical position, to its large labor market and special economic zones. Currently, Poland has a very stable economic market and it ranks, at a global level, as the 40th economy for its business climate (in a study carried out by the World Bank – 2020 Doing Business). Related to foreign investments in this country, we present the following:

• in 2017, the country’s main foreign investor was Germany, accounting for 20,2% of all the investments;
• the United States of America accounted for 11%, while the 3rd most important partner was France (9,8%);
• the 4th top investor was the Netherlands (8,8%), while the 5th was the United Kingdom (5,8%);
foreign investors moving to Poland preferred the manufacturing sector (31% of all the investments);
• the financial and insurance activities represented the 2nd most important activity (20,5%).

We can offer our assistance to those who want to apply for Polish citizenship.

Because of its advantageous geographic location for trade, Poland’s comparatively low cost of living, magnificent scenery, and rich history make it a desirable place to live for foreigners. Entrepreneurial foreigners now have more employment options in Poland, and most recent immigrants work in fields including technology, finance, human resources, manufacturing, and English-language instruction. Poland may not have the same diversity as other countries, but major cities like Warsaw and Krakow are seeing an increase in the number of foreign residents, which is helping to create a more global culture.

It must be noted the Poland immigration rules stipulate that a foreign person can have dual citizenship after obtaining citizenship by investment or through other means. However, in the case of foreign investors who want to maintain their basic citizenship, it is advisable to verify the legal requirements of their home country, as they may be required to forfeit the respective citizenship upon the approval of a new citizenship in a foreign country; our team of immigration lawyers in Poland can offer more information on such requirements.

Comparison between Poland and Austria

We present you a short comparison between Poland and Austria regarding citizenship:

  • While in Poland there is no way to obtain citizenship by investment, in Austria this is possible by opening a business or investing in real estate.
  • In Poland you must obtain a residence permit and then follow the mandatory steps for citizenship. In Austria you can obtain citizenship faster by doing investments.
  • Dual citizenship is permitted in Poland, but not in Austria.

FAQ on citizenship by investment in Poland

  1. Is it hard to obtain Polish citizenship by investment?

No, it is not hard to obtain citizenship in Poland, however, it should be noted that direct citizenship by investment is not available at the moment.

  1. What is the simplest way of obtaining citizenship by investment in Poland?

The simplest route to Polish citizenship by investment is by starting a business in this country, as the registration procedure is rather simple. The Start-up visa is also a suitable option.

  1. How long does the immigration procedure take?

It can take a few weeks to have the residence permit issued, however, the procedure depends on the country of residence of the applicant.

  1. How much does it cost to obtain citizenship in Poland?

The citizenship application procedure is subject to various fees. These are not high and updated information on them can be provided by our lawyers.

As a general rule, investors from European countries can maintain the first citizenship, but there are few exemptions from this. Investors who need more information on the process of obtaining Polish citizenship by investment can address to our team of immigration lawyers in Poland for professional advice and legal representation. Do not hesitate to inquire about the residence permit in Poland.